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1. Cell structure and organization 2. Cellular organelle functions 3. Diversity, characteristics and classification of living things 4. General reproduction 5. Inter-relationship of organisms, heredity and evolution 6. Elements of ecology and types of habitats.

Molecular treatment of properties of matter, elasticity: Hooke’s law, Young’s shear and Bulk Moduli, Poisson’s ratio, Hydrostatics: pressure. Buoyancy, Archimede’s principles, Hydrodynamics: streamlines, Bernouli and continuity equations, turbulence, Reynold’s number, viscosity, laminar flow, Poiseuilles equation. Stokes’ law and application – terminal velocity, Torricalli’s theorem. Surface tension; adhesion, cohesion, capillarity, drops and bubbles, temperature; the Zeroth law of thermodynamics; heat, gas laws of thermodynamics. Kinetic theory of gases, applications. Waves and wave motion, types of waves, longitudinal, transverse, travelling, and stationary waves. Sound waves.

This introductory course emphasizes quantitative measurements, the treatment of measurement errors, and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems, and mechanical resonant systems, light heat viscosity covered in PHY 101 and PHY 103.

Space and Time, frames of reference, units and dimensions, Kinematics- vectors, scalars, speed/velocity, acceleration, circular motion and applications. Fundamental laws of mechanics. Statics: Equilibrium, Centre of Mass. Dynamics: Newton’s Law of Motion, Force, Inertia, Mass and Weight, contact forces, Atwood machines, pulleys, projectile motion. Linear momentum, Galilean Invariance, universal gravitation – Newton’s gravitation law; Kepler’s laws, gravitational potential, Earth’s satellite, velocity of escape and weightlessness. Work and Energy, rotational dynamics and angular momentum. Moment of inertia, kinetic energy of rotation; Conservation laws, Oscillatory motion – Simple Harmonic motion, damped and forced oscillation.

1.BACKGROUND This is a core course for majority of first year students in the University; it is therefore designed to hold two hours weekly all through the first semester. In this course, we will examine and discuss fundamental concepts of computing. We will see what computing entails in terms of problem solving using the continuously advancing machine called digital computer system. The art and science of computing is undeniably relevant in almost all aspects of human endeavours today, thereby necessitating that all and sundry should embrace the study of the fundamental concepts and underlying principles that drive it. The modern Digital Computer is a tool whose importance emphasizes why budgetary provision for its use and applications cannot be ignored if individuals and organization must keep up with the fast paced era we are in and maximize the essence of globalization, though the negative impact of computing when not used appropriately cannot be ignored in its entirety. EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the semester, students are expected to have understanding of some of the fundamental and basic concepts in computing, be able to distinctly categorize computer systems, understand the classification, history of computers/computing, and functional components of the hardware of the computer systems. Also the basic of knowledge of programming and its fundamentals are expected to be learnt. In essence, the following topics will be taught in the course: a. Definition of Fundaments Concepts/Terms in Computing and Fields in Computer Science b. History of Computing and Generation of Computer Systems c. Classification of Computer d. Computer Hardware: Functional Components of the Computer System And Modern I/O Units e. Data Representation f. Software: Operating Systems and Application Packages g. Program Development: Flow charts and Algorithms; Object-Oriented Programming using Python. COURSE CONTENTS By the end of this course, we hope to have discussed the following topics in as much details as possible. • Introduction 1. Definition of Fundamental terms/Concepts: Computer, Software, Hardware, Operating System, Algorithm, Data, Information, Program (computer program), Programming, Computing, and Computer Science, etc. 2. Fields of Computer Science: (a) Parallel computing (b) Computability Theory (c) Numerical Analysis (d) Computer Architecture (e) Operating Systems (f) Programming Language and Compilers (g) Algorithms, Data structures and Complexity (h) Networking and Distributed Computing (i)Systems Analysis, Information Management and Database Systems (j) Software Development (i.e. Software Engineering) (k) Human-Computer Interaction(HCI) (l) Graphics and Visual Computing (m) Intelligent Systems (i.e. Artificial Intelligence) • History of Computing and Generations of Computers: First, Second, Third, Fourth(1st phase & 2nd phase), Fifth Generation and beyond • Classification Of Computers 1. Classification Based On Mode Of Use 2. Classification based on interconnectedness  Computer Hardware 1. Functional Components 2. Other Significant parts of the hardware of a Personal Computer 3. Modern Input/Output Units 4. Relationship Between Hardware And Software  Data Representation 1. Representation of Characters in Computers 2. Representation of Integers 3. Representation of Fractions 4. Hexadecimal representation of Numbers 5. Decimal to binary conversion • Software 1. Types of Software: System Software and Application Software 2. Operating Systems: What is an Operating System? Major Functions Of An Operating System, Types of Operating Systems. 3. Application Packages: Definition and Categorization of Application Packages. • Program Development 1. Program Objects, Flow charts, Algorithms and Pseudocodes: Description of the basic functions of flowchart symbols, General rules for flowcharting, Examples of Algorithms, Pseudocodes and their corresponding flowcharts. 2. Python Fundamentals: The Key Software Trend: Object-Oriented programming, Characteristics of Python, The Process Of Program, Creating, Translating And Executing Python Programs, Variables & data types, Variable Naming Conventions, Key Words In Python, Named Constants, Arithmetic Operators, Converting Between Different Types Of Information, Program Documentation, Types Of Programming Errors, Making Decisions, Loops: Basic structure of loops, types of loops, User-friendly software, Some rules for designing software. MODE OF ASSESSMENT • There shall be series of Assignments & unannounced quizzes culminating into (15%) • A major Test (to be scheduled)-15% • Semester Examination- 70% • Participation and contribution in lecture sessions will be encouraged • Punctuality & Attendance are key factors in this course. • For NO reason must you write attendance on behalf of anyone else. • You need to get your PCs ready (especially for the purpose of receiving electronic copies of lecture notes prior to lecture sessions, drawing of flowcharts, programming tasks & assignments etc.) LECTURE VENUE & DAYS Venue: Lecture Room 203 Days: Tuesdays 1pm – 3pm Text and WebPages: • Fundamentals of Computers (Fifth Edition): V. Rajaraman. PHI Learning Private Limited New Delhi-110001. 2011 • • Operating system tutorials.pdf:, Mohtashim M. I’ll be glad to receive your feedback in form of questions, suggestions and/or complaints that will be helpful and ultimately enhance your knowledge acquisition in this course and beyond. Contact: 08138634692, e-mail address: Office Address: Room 10

Statistical data: types, sources and methods of collection. Presentation of data: tables, charts and graphs. Errors and approximation. Frequency and cumulative distributions, measures of location, partition, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis. Rates, ration and index numbers.

Vectors: three dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system, representation of vectors, algebra of vectors, midpoint theorem, scalar product of two vectors, component of a vector, vector equation of a plane, vector product of two vectors. Kinematics of a particle, speed, displacement (displacement vector), velocity (average velocity) and acceleration vectors. Geometric representation of average velolcity, instantaneous velocity and speed. Acceleration , instantaneous acceleration, motion under constant acceleration, free-fall (motion under gravity). Projectile motion.

Elementary set theory; subsets, union, intersection, compliments, venn diagrams. Real numbers, integers, rational and irrational numbers.Mathematical induction, sequences and series.Theory of quadratic equations, binomial theorem. Complex numbers; algebra of complex numbers, the argand diagram, De Moivre’s theorem, nth root of unity. Circular measure, trigonometric functions of angles of any magnitude, addition and factor formulae.

The course entails practical demonstration/ hands on for the theoretical General Chemistry 1 (CHM 101). It is designed to enhance the basic understanding of chemistry laboratory principles.

It elucidates basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist point of view. A broadly domiciled course adequate for students from various departments including those in Chemical Sciences. Courses covered will include matter Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Reactions,Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry, Atomic Structure and Periodicity; Modern Electronic theory of atoms; Radioactivity; Chemical Bonding; Properties of Gases; Equilibra and; Thermodynamics; Chemical Kinetics; Electrochemistry.
1. General classification of plants 2. Features of vascular and non-vascular plants 3. Duration of life, life cycles and life or growth forms of plants 4. Cell structure and functions 5. Botanical drawings and use of microscope.

Detailed literature search followed by presentation at a departmental Seminar of a scientific topic, which must be of microbiological or biotechnological interest

Microbes and ecological theory. Principles of microbial ecology. Environmental conditions influencing the ecosystem’s populations. Microbial succession in different ecosystems. Symbiosis in the microbial world: positive (mutualism, synergism, commensalism, etc.). Negative (parasitism, competition, predation, etc.). Ecology of microorganisms in fresh water, soil and air. Microorganisms in our environments. Biogeochemical cycling of key biological components/ essential elements: nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus and sulphur.

Statistical applications of epidemiology. Nature of epidemiological investigations. Spectrum of infections. Latency of infections, multifactorial system in epidemics. Zoonoses, biological products for immunization. Recommended immunization schedules. International control of infectious diseases.

Laboratory procedures for isolation and identification of microorganisms from patients. Serological diagnostic techniques.

Development and prospects of enzyme technology. Biotechnological uses of enzymes. Production of industrial solvents, organic acids, amino acids and vitamins steroid transformation. Microbial insecticides. Production rhizobia as legume inoculants. Biodeterioration of industrial materials. Patent and patent laws. Biochemistry of industrial fermentations.

Definition of Biotechnology and its applications in medicine, food, microbial and plant genetics. Safety procedure laboratory code of practice. Safe handling of enzymes in the biotechnology laboratory. Pipettes and standard laboratory equipment handling and calibration. Solution chemistry, dilutions and concentrations, spectrophotometry, principle of colorimetry, absorptiometry and visual instruments (e.g. Lovibond comparator). Plasmid isolation: mini and maxi preparation of plasmids from E. coli . Mini and Maxi preparation of genomic DNA from plants and humans. Purification, concentration and quantification of DNA, (plasmids), Concepts of  restriction and modification, restriction endonucleases, DNA sequencing and gel electrophoresis, transformation procedure for prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Protein analysis. Enzyme analysis

Food fermentation: biochemistry and microbiology of fermented Nigerian foods and beverages such as garri, ogi, palm wine, burukutu/ pito, foo-foo, etc. single cell protein. Food in relation to diseases. Food poisoning: food interactions and infections; a detailed study. Investigation of food-borne disease outbreaks. Microbiological specifications for foods. Assessment of microbial quality of foods. Indicator organisms. Food sanitation, control and inspection agents.

Microorganisms as agents in quantitative analysis. Selection of test organisms for assays (antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, etc.). responses of microorganisms used in assays. Obtaining and measuring responses. Preparation of assay samples. Methods of assays. Interpretation of results. Aspects of microbiological standards and specifications. Water quality. Health of personnel.

The course covers the history of plant pathology, non-parasitic diseases of plants, bacterial diseases, fungal diseases and nematode diseases. Also to be covered are diseases incited by viruses, relationship of environment of diseases, development and host-parasite interactions. Methods of disease control will also be covered as well as phaneroganic parasite diseases. Review of chemical pesticides. Organochlorines, organophosphates and carbonates. History of the principles and practice of microbial control of agricultural and public health pests. Taxonomy and bionomics of enthomopathogens: viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, nematodes and predators. Methods of isolation of the enthomopathogens from natural environments. Pilot and large scale production/ development of bio-insecticides. Application of bio-insecticides. Safety test for microbial control agents against man, animals and other non-target organisms. Current status and prospects of microbial control
General characteristics of pathogenic fungi especially in their relationship to diseases. Principles of infection, pathogenesis and immunity, emphasis on mycological techniques for laboratory diagnosis. Principles of disease control are emphasized.

Types of disinfectants and their mode of action. The chemistry of synthetic chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics. Production and synthesis of antibiotics and anti-microbial agents. Quality control of pharmaceutical products. Concepts of growth and death in microorganisms. The mode of action, sensitivity testing of anti-microbial agents, mechanisms of drug resistance and sensitivity by microorganisms.

Microorganisms in our environment viz. air, water, soil, etc. waste disposal and role of microorganisms. Ecology of microorganisms in water. Pollution and self-purification of water. Diseases transmitted by water. Microorganisms in the ecosystem. Biological oxygen demand. Test for sewage and water techniques for microbial examination of water.

Biological, chemical and physical aspects of fermentation. Instrumentation and process control. Equipment used in fermentation industries. Agitation and aeration, theoretical and applied aspects. Aspects of chemical engineering. Batch versus continuous culture. Industrial sterilization. Extracellular enzyme recovery techniques. Enzyme characterization method.

Systematic classification of viruses, general characteristics, growth and reproduction, viral variations and morphology. Methods of viral cultivation and identification with special reference to tissue culture will be introduced. Attention will be given to viruses pathogenic to man and animals with emphasis on virulence, types of diseases produced, methods of control. The bacteriophage will be used in some of the laboratory practical to demonstrate the characteristics of viruses. Representative animal viruses will also be studied in the laboratory to demonstrate the nature of viral virulence. Methods of viral cultivation and identification will be studied.

Anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Comparison of both cell types, the molecular architecture and composition of microbial cells and their methods of study. Informational macromolecules, DNA and RNA, proteins and enzymes. Nutrition and cultivation of microorganisms. Growth, reproduction and survival of microorganisms. Microbial differentiation. Energy yield metabolism. Nitrogenous compounds, lipids and other organic compounds, bacterial and algal photosynthesis. Bioenergentics: the electron transport system. Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, purines and pyrimidine, synthesis of tetrapyrolles, terpe and B-group vitamins. Regulation and metabolism.

Nature of industrial microbiology. Microorganisms of industrial importance. Aspects of the biology of molds, yeasts, bacteria, actinomycetes and viruses of importance in  various fermentations. Culture techniques and maintenance of selected cultures. Mutation, strain selection and development, hybridization. Media formulation and economics. Optimization of fermentation media at laboratory scale. Fermenter design and operation. Antifoams.

Representative genera and species of bacteria will be studied with particular reference to their role in pathogenesis of human diseases. Their virulence factors, clinical course, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis of select bacterial diseases will be studied. Principles of disease control emphasized.

Historical perspective and scope of immunology, natural and acquired immunity. Role of lymphoid tissues and thymus, and immune responses. Types of immune responses. The reagents in immune reactions. Antigen-antibody reactions. Mechanism and theories of antibody formation. Structure of antibodies. Structure of antigens. Immunoglobulins and serum proteins. Immunogenicity and immunogenic specificity. Cytotoxicity and neutralization. Anamnestic response. Hypersensitivity. Immunopathology auto-immunity; tumor and transplantation immunology.

Historical development of petroleum microbiology. Microbial corrosion. Microbial deterioration of such petroleum products as asphalt, domestic fuel oils, jet/ aircraft fuel. Role of microorganisms in oxidation and elimination of petroleum and petrochemical spills. Microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Microbial products from hydrocarbon fermentations. Biogenesis of fossil fuels with emphasis on the role of microorganisms. Petroleum prospecting and  secondary recovery.  Microbial  corrosion  of  pipes  and  equipment.  Methanogenesis  and methanotrophy. Effects of oil spill on microbial activities in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biodeterioration and biotransformation of hydrocarbons.

Microorganisms important in food microbiology, various sources of contamination of food. Principles of food spoilage including factors affecting microbial growth and activity in foods. Principles of food preservation with detailed study on various preservation methods. Contamination, spoilage and preservation of specific food items: milk and milk products, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, vegetables and fruits, egg and poultry, cereal and cereal products, heated canned foods.

Nature of soil components, texture, profile and soil as a microbial environment. Quantitative determination of soil microorganisms and their ecology, decomposition of organic matter. Nitrogen cycle. Bacterial fertilizers. Transformation of phosphorus, sulphur, iron, pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc. microbial formation of petroleum. Plant root/ soil microbes inter-relationship: rhizosphere, mycorrhizae and root pathogens.

Brief review of classical genetics. The genetics of fungi, bacteria and viruses. Bacterial transformation, conjugations and transduction. Extra chromosomal DNA (plasmids and episomes). Chromosome and gene mapping. Evidence of DNA as a genetic material. Mutation in microorganisms, natural selection and adaptation. Regulatory mechanisms of microorganisms. Genetic code. Elements of genetic engineering.

General classification of fungi, general characteristics used in classifying fungi, taxonomy, modern classification of fungi,  amplification of the classification of fungi, modern classification, characteristics, structure and classification of major fungal groups, class chytridiomycetes, somatic structures of chytrids, asexual reproduction in chytrids, sexual reproduction in chytids, class oomycetes, class zygomycetes, class ascomycetes, class basidiomycetes, reproduction in fungi, asexual reproduction in fungi, different types of asexual spores in fungi, sexual reproduction in fungi. Fungal diseases in man, superficial mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, Systemic (deep) mycoses, coccidiomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, zygomycosis, beneficial/importance of fungi, wine production, beer production, bread production, fungi as a source of protein, the discovery of antibiotics.

History and present trends in cell biology. Reproduction, cell division, cell differentiation and growth  of  cells.  A  brief  study  of  the  molecular  basis  of  cell  structure  and  development. Organelles. Proteins and nucleic acids.

Taxonomy of Eukaryotic microorganisms. Fungi: physiology and cell structure. Classification, ecology, economic importance of fungi. Algae: structure and physiology. Classification, ecology and economic importance. Protozoa: Form, life cycle and nutrition. Classification of protozoa, physiology, ecology and classification of slime molds.
Culturing of microorganisms; preparation of media for microbial growth. Isolation of pure culture; streaking, pour plates etc.; sub-culturing procedures. Staining techniques for differentiation of microorganisms. Enumeration of microorganisms, direct and indirect procedures. Identification of microorganisms to include colonial and cellular morphology and biochemical procedures.

A survey of animal/ plant parasites including the structures, life cycle, parasitic adaptations, host specificity and susceptibility. Geographical distribution, prevention and control. Physiology and immunology of parasites. Economic importance of metabolism of some selected parasites. Immunology of parasitic infections.

Introduction to Microbiology: Composition of the Microbial World, Historical Aspects of Microbiology, The Relevance and Scope of Microbiology, Microscopy and Specimen Preparation, Brief Survey of Microbes as Friends and Foes. General Characteristics of Microorganisms: Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, Algae, Protozoa. Microbial Growth, Reproduction and Control, Systematic Classification of Microorganisms, Microbial Genetics and Biogeochemical Cycling of Elements.

Microbial cell types – Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; bacterial cell structure and function. The biology of bacteria, fungi and protozoa, algae and viruses. Ecological relationship and the role of microorganisms in natural and special environments such as soil, water, milk, food industry and in disease. Definition and scope of Brewing Science, interrelationship with other sciences, principles and application of brewing sciences in dealing with beer production, its supply, quality and safety. Physiology and biochemistry of cereals used in brewing: Barley, sorghum, maize, rice, millet, hops. Career opportunities for brewing sciences.


The course is designed to expose students to the scope and characteristics of Business from social, legal and economic perspectives. It will examine the forms of business ownership, organization and management. Marketing, Production, Finance, Accounting functions, Government and business  will  be looked at. It also will cover the social responsibility of business, International business and problems of Nigerian business enterprises.

The course explores the idea of a legal system, looks at the different legal systems in the world and identifies their characteristics. Specifically, the course critically  examines the meaning of law, the need for law in the society, classification of law, sources of law in Nigeria, the legislative process in Nigeria, the administration of justice in Nigeria, the hierarchy of courts in Nigeria, the role of judiciary in the emerging democracy and the Rule of law and political governance in Nigeria.


The course examines Nigeria constitutional development in chronological and sequential order. Emphasis  is  on topics such as colonisation and the development of constitutions in Nigeria ;Clifford's constitution; Lyttleton constitution;Independence constitution; the Republican constitution; the 1979 and  the 1999 constitution as amended. It also acquaints the student with the politics of constitution making.

The course begins with integrating in the students, the knowledge of the basic elements and concepts in political Science. The nature and scope of political science are introduced, incorporating political science relationship with other study disciplines such as Economics, Geography, History, Law, Psychology, Sociology and many more. Furthermore, the students are introduced to the methods of political science and to the basic concepts like State, Power, Nation,  Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Government and its organs including forms such as Monarchy, Aristocracy, Democracy, Tyranny, Oligarchy, Military and Totalitarianism. The students are also acquainted with the knowledge of  Constitution and Constitutionalism, Rule of Law, Separation of Powers and the Nigerian Civil Service.

This is a general course to introduce students to fundamental elements of literary art, its aesthetic principles, genres, approaches to critical evaluation and appreciation and the interface of literature and allied arts.

This is to be a practical course through which the student can acquire the practical skills of theatre: Speech and voice training, techniques of improvisation, acting and stage construction.

This is a general course to introduce students to fundamental elements of literary art, its aesthetic principles, genres, approaches to critical evaluation and appreciation and the interface of literature and allied arts.

This is an introduction to major issues in Nigeria’s socio-political culture, cultural crisis and renewal and other basic aspects of the country’s culture

 It discusses the meaning and scope of international relations, sources of international law, forms of interaction between nation-states, foreign policy as well as distinction between international relations, international politics and international political system. It also examines the origins, functions and limitations of diplomacy, types of diplomacy: traditional, conference, preventive diplomacy etc. Diplomatic relations, negotiations etc.

 A survey of European history highlighting fundamental developments such as the early economic and social institutions, feudalism, the Renaissance, Reformation in the Christian Church, the Age of Discoveries, Mercantilism, the New Scientific views of the world, the Age of Enlightenment, the American and French Revolutions.

Archaeology, its meaning, development and methods.  An exploration of the general principles and techniques of the discipline, the relevance of interdisciplinary approach to the study of history, reconnaissance, excavation, artifact study and museums.


Introduction of concepts and major currents in Economic History, Growth, Development, National Income, Feudalism, Mercantilism, Industrial Revolution, Capitalism and Socialism. Emphasis is on the various ideologies and strategies of development in a rapidly changing world economy.

The course highlights historical developments of the West African kingdoms and empires, the internal factors of change such as politics, agriculture, industry, trade and inter-group relations, as well as external factors of the Arabs and the Europeans, including the role and impact of Islam, Christianity, trade, colonialism, independence and the current struggle for survival. 

The course highlights historical developments in the Nigerian region from about 1500 to 1800 A.D. including state formation and inter-group relations in the areas of political, religious, economic and socio-cultural activities.